Ultrasensitive detection of radio waves by laser

Radio waves are used for many measurements and applications. For example, the communication of mobile phones, in scans using magnetic resonance imaging, in various scientific experiments and some astronomical observations. But the “noise” in the detector of the measuring instrument limits the degree of sensitivity and accuracy of the measurements can be made.

Laser light

Now, this obstacle may be on track to be overcome. Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, part of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, have developed a method capable of preventing noise thanks to laser light. Read the rest of this entry »

Spectacular quantum entanglement between photons in three different places

For the first time, we have demonstrated the distribution of three quantum entangled photons at three different locations, separated by several hundred meters. The feat has managed a team of physicists from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo in Canada.

Photo of the area where the experiment was done

Quantum entanglement, once described by Einstein as “spooky action at a distance” is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which there is a strong correlation between quantum particles involved. These quantum systems can not be described independently of each other, even though they are separated by great distances. Read the rest of this entry »

The first carnivorous animals that evolved into an herbivorous diet

Detailed analysis of the fossilized skeletal remains of a young individual of the species Eocasea martini, which lived about 300 million years ago, which was less than 20 inches long, analysis shows how certain carnivores started the first evolutionary transition to herbivores mainland.

Cotylorhynchus

Discovered in Kansas, United States, these fossil remains consist of a partial skull, most of the spine, pelvis and hind leg.

The appearance of herbivores was a revolutionary evolutionary event for life on land because it made terrestrial vertebrates could have direct access to the vast resources provided land plants. These herbivores turn became a major source of food for large terrestrial predators. Read the rest of this entry »

Cancer cells manage to attract a suitable place to kill them

One factor that characterizes glioblastoma as a difficult cancer to treat, it is that malignant tumor cells are distributed throughout the brain through nerve fibers and blood vessels invading new places.

S. Balakrishna Pai

Now researchers have found a way to take control of this migration mechanism, for use against the same cancer, using a layer thinner than human hair nanofibers to attract tumor cells to a death trap on the outside brain.

With this new technique, instead of invading new areas, migratory cells focus their attention on the nanofibers specially designed and continue until you reach an area, ideally outside the brain, which can be retained and exterminated. Read the rest of this entry »

Authenticating objects microparticles

Some chemical engineers have developed a system based on a particle that can be read by smartphones, and it could enormously facilitate the fight against counterfeit products system.

Authenticating objects microparticles

Between 2 and 5 percent of all international trade is related to counterfeit goods, according to a report by the United Nations, 2013. These illicit products, including electronics, aircraft parts and automotive vehicles and pharmaceuticals and even food, can involve security risks to the consumer and cost hundreds of billions of dollars annually to governments and private companies.

Many strategies have been developed to try to label legitimate products and prevent illegal trade, but these labels are often too easy to fake, unreliable or too costly to implement them. Read the rest of this entry »

Wolves are not just a primitive version of dogs

Although dogs have a very close evolutionary relationship with wolves, there are notable differences between them. Enough people see wolves as merely primitive versions of the dogs, and therefore less intelligent than these in all aspects. But it is not. In some intellectual abilities, Wolves beat out the dogs, as has been demonstrated in a recent study.

Wolves

Investigating Friederike Range and Zsofia Viranyi, the Messerli Institute at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria, have conducted experiments whose results suggest that wolves are observed each other more closely than they do dogs together, and because of that the wolves are better to learn from other congeners, including dogs, these. Scientific believe that ability, which helps the cooperation among wolves, is one of the main bases of understanding between dogs and humans. Read the rest of this entry »

A smart elastic patch to control remote patient

Researchers at the University of Illinois (USA) in collaboration with experts in materials from China and Korea have created patches containing elastic inside circuits, sensors and radio communication systems. These new devices are gently adhering to the skin, thanks to its silicone coating. The results of the study are published in the latest issue of the journal Science.

A smart elastic patch

According to John Rogers, one of the study authors, “the salient features of these new devices is that they are ultra-thin (about 1 mm), elastic and physically similar to the skin. Gently adhere without any restraint, so that it does not limit the natural movement of people”. Therefore, he adds, “the system is ideal for long-term continuous monitoring of patients.”

In developing two essential ideas for assembling integrated circuits, sensors and radio systems and power is applied. First, Rogers says, “all of these elements float on a thin microfluidic chamber with soft elastomeric membranes as upper and lower substrates.” Read the rest of this entry »

Cheaper solar cells thin film to further reduce its thickness

It has been possible to devise a “superabsorbent” design that would significantly improve the efficiency of light absorption of the thin film solar cell and reduce manufacturing costs.

Diagram of the new design

The superabsorbent design could reduce the thickness of the semiconductor materials used in thin film solar cells in more than one order of magnitude, without reducing their ability to absorb sunlight.

The best solar cell thin film in use today need an amorphous silicon layer of about 100 nanometers thick which is what captures most of the available solar energy. The structure designed by the team of Linyou Cao, Yiling Yu and Lujun Huang, of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, United States, can absorb 90 percent of the available solar energy using only 10 nanometers thick amorphous silicon layer. Read the rest of this entry »

A possible way to detect the hypothetical gravitons

Among the four fundamental forces of nature, gravity is the only one that was not detected you a basic unit. Physicists hope that the gravitational force is transmitted by a theoretical elementary particle called the graviton, as the electromagnetic force is transmitted by the photon.

Artist's impression of a graviton

Although there are theoretical reasons for why gravitons must exist, would be physically impossible to detect on Earth.

For example, it would be possible to use the conventional way to measure gravitational forces (bouncing light into an array of mirrors for measuring minute changes in the separation of these) for gravitons. According to physicist Freeman Dyson, the sensitivity to detect the change in distance caused by so tiny a graviton would have to use so massive mirrors that would collapse on themselves and form a black hole. Read the rest of this entry »

Getting more efficient synthetic natural gas from excess electricity

Solar panels and wind turbines can produce sometimes during times generally short, more energy that can be transferred to the grid at the time. A concept already exploited, although still on a small scale, to use that electricity is to use it to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis.

Zeolites

In combination with carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen, a renewable resource, can be used to produce methane, which can be stored and transferred to grids of natural gas, as it is composed mostly of methane gas.

Scientists at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Science and Technology of Materials (EMPA, also known collectively as EMPA Institute) have now achieved significantly optimize this process. Read the rest of this entry »